Are XXY’s more at risk of developing COVID 19?

Are XXY’s more at risk of developing COVID 19 is a question frequently asked on XXY social media platforms, and the truth of the matter appears to be that, while the second X chromosome can offer some level of protection by way of the estrogen receptor signalling pathway, the reality is our lived experiences and life dependency of sex hormones, can expose us to comorbidities noted for worsening outcomes.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020 with over 3,059,642 cases and 211,028 deaths being reported from 213 countries and territories at the time of writing this review. There is increasing evidence to suggest that patients with endocrinopathies such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), obesity and cardiovascular disease are at higher risk for COVID-19 related complications. Reports from the UK and US have indicated a high prevalence of DM and obesity in COVID-19 non-survivors and severe cases . In the US, the most commonly reported cardiometabolic comorbidities associated with COVID-19 are HTN (49.7%), obesity (48.3%), DM (28.3%), and cardiovascular disease (27.8%) . Furthermore, DM is the most common comorbidity in COVID-19 deaths according to one report. Given these data, both the WHO and the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) list DM, HTN and obesity as risk factors for development of more severe COVID-19 outcomes. In this review, we summarize common endocrinopathies associated with COVID-19.

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