The X Chromosome: Sex-specific Effects in Infectious Disease

The X chromosome and X-linked variants have largely been ignored in genome-wide and candidate association studies of infectious diseases due to the complexity of statistical analysis of the X chromosome. This exclusion is significant, since the X chromosome contains a high density of immune-related genes and regulatory elements that are extensively involved in both the … Continue reading The X Chromosome: Sex-specific Effects in Infectious Disease

Hyperestrogenism The Elephant in Klinefelter’s Syndrome

Photo Credit: William Daigneault What is clear is that a condition of relative hyperestrogenism is present in these patients, since the estradiol/testosterone ratio is altered thanks to the lower concentrations of total serum testosterone in presence of normal serum estradiol. Accordingly, the results of this study confirm unequivocally the significant reduction in total serum testosterone … Continue reading Hyperestrogenism The Elephant in Klinefelter’s Syndrome